Race as Ethnic Identity in America

The United States defines their different ethnic cultures within its society by race. The U.S. census limits the types of races to six. In America especially, this system of dividing people by color, although a new concept regarding human history has become a social norm. Despite the natural and social sciences’ transition away from and debunking race as a natural phenomenon the U.S. still chooses to delineate its citizens by race.

Ethnic-Racial Identity

Anthropologist and historian, Audrey Smedley, Ph.D. in “Race and the Construction of Human Identity,” defines the phrase racial group as “the organization of all peoples into a limited number of unequal or ranked categories theoretically based on differences in their biophysical traits.” Smedley argues that race as we know it today did not exist in ancient civilizations and that past human beings categorized themselves according to culture, city, occupation, and the like.

Also, Smedley carefully outlines in her piece that scholars, particularly biologist and anthropologists, connect racial identity to social construction. Smedley draws a distinction between race and ethnicity, which in modern times has been treated “as if they are similar phenomena.” According to Smedley, in the U.S. race has become a part of identity that is “the biophysical features of different populations, […] internalized as sources of individual and group identities”.

Racial identity as perceptionU.S. Census Bureau Racial Groups

The U.S. Census Bureau, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, categorizes its citizens into six racial groups: American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Hawaiian or another Pacific Islander, and White. A citizen may choose one or more of these six categories.

The Office of Management and Budget also provides working definitions for each racial category. For instance, a person who chooses the category of white is defined as a “person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.”

Citizen Identity & Race

So, what happens if a person defines themselves as being of mixed race? The census remedies this by allowing individuals to choose more than one category, but the adherence to race as identity produces, according to Smedley, a “conditioned […] belief in the biological salience of ‘race’”. In essence, the race has inseparable physical and cultural components. Therefore, “identity is biology, racial ideology tells us, and it is permanent and immutable.”

Smedley loosely defines ethnicity throughout her piece as a nation of people with common cultural practices. As evidenced through the census, the U.S. blurs the line between race and ethnicity. Qualifying, or rather attempting to qualify large groups of people into one neat category creates a dangerous cultural construct in a multicultural society. It fuels division because of socially constructed differences when looked at closely may not exist.

Smedley recommends that society recognize “the reality of the racial worldview and how it developed as a sociocultural reality” to break free from this kind of identity. Thus, realizing that race as ethnic identity forces individuals to fit “into limited ‘racial’ categories” society, particularly American society can change how it looks at “human diversity.”

References

“Federal Register Notice.” Whitehouse.gov, Office of Management and Budget, 30 Oct. 1997. Web. 19 Feb. 2010.

Smedley, Audrey. “‘Race’ and the Construction of Human Identity.” American Anthropologist 100.3 (1998): 690-702. Print.

Benefits of Hiring Personal Chef for Seniors

Do you have an elderly family member who would like to use some help planning their meals in the kitchen?

Most of the families prefer meal delivery service to shower their loved one with their favorite food, but do you know, this is not the only option for you to consider. You can also hire a private chef and prepare their ideal home cooked food for the seniors in the family. If you are worried about the cost of hiring a personal chef, you can quickly get the service of a personal chef who will prepare a customized meal for as less as $10 per serving.

This option is still like a non-existent idea for many, but it can prove to be very beneficial for the individual who wants to try them. Here are five benefits of hiring a personal chef for the senior family member:

1. Chef Manages Your Grocery & Meal Planning

A personal chef preparing sumptuous yet healthy mealsOne of the primary benefits of hiring a personal chef for the elderly members is that the chef takes care of entire grocery shopping, fresh ingredients, and meal planning. Most of the seniors are not able to go to the store, and there are many reasons such as disabilities and lack of transportation, etc. This can add to the stress as they have to think of getting food every day constantly.

With the personal chef service, seniors can discuss their meal plan as per their requirement and let them pick the necessary items in the list. Not only does this add convenience for the seniors but also give them free time to rest and relax. Plus, they will always have a reliable source to depend on the food.

2. Eliminates the Cooking Stress

Cooking can often become a stressful task, especially for the seniors. For most, it’s a process from planning, shopping, and finally cooking which may feel like a laborious task. Some of them get stressed and frustrated with the fact that they cannot do things with ease like before. They won’t need to worry about any mishaps like dropping plates and knives.

3. Customizable Meals

Another good thing about personal chef service for seniors is that you can place your request for custom meals based on your dietary needs. Although not every senior person will have special requirements, most will have due to medications and other age-related health concerns. It’s important for seniors to eat healthy food. The personal chef service will prepare the meals to suit unique dietary and taste needs. The process is more personal, enjoyable and above all the most convenient. Seniors will get to eat nutritious food with fresh and good quality ingredients.

4. Affordable On Budget

Most of you might not agree to this part, like how can a personal chef be affordable? But you to your surprise, if you compare the price of personal chef service to other delivery services, you will be shocked to know how reasonable it is.

Many offer special discounts designed for the seniors where this fact is taken into the primary consideration that most of the seniors live on the budget. All you need is to find suitable personal chef services in your local area who offer services for seniors. Check for the charges and their menu and take the right decision. YourPersonalChef.NYC provides a wide range of cuisines and freshly prepared custom meals for all your requirements delivered right at your doorsteps.

5. Gives You Free Time

While food delivery service will surely help you save time, hiring a personal chef offers you more than that. Since the personal chef does everything from picking ingredients to cooking meals, seniors can enjoy that time as they wish. It’s a lovely opportunity to read, relax or meet up their friends. If ever they wish to invite their friends over for the lunch or dinner, hiring a personal chef is the best way to be a great host.

Healthy eating is one of the primary requirements to live a disease free life. In today’s time, everyone is super busy and often end up ignoring the intake of nutritious and balanced diet.

For seniors, proper intake of food is more important because of the degrading body condition and the inability of eating everything and anything. The things like medicinal side effects, taste bud change, and laziness end up ruining their will. Hiring a personal chef will help you with menu planning, grocery shopping, and customized meal options.

Healthy eating is one of the primary requirements to live a disease free life. In today’s time, everyone is super busy and often end up ignoring the intake of nutritious and balanced diet. For seniors, proper intake of food is more important because of the degrading body condition and the inability of eating everything and anything. The things like medicinal side effects, taste bud change, and laziness end up ruining their will.

Seniors enjoying hearty mealsWhy are More Seniors Opting for a Private Chef Service?

In recent years, more and more seniors are taking in-home chef service. With this option, the chef is responsible for all the tasks. Here are some of the reasons why seniors, nowadays are choosing private chef service.

1. Safety

Many senior individuals suffer from chronic disease. It can be unsafe for them to work around the kitchen stove, stand in a queue for long, carry heavy things and cook. To avoid any physical or medical injury, seniors these days take the private chef meal subscription on a weekly basis.

2. Nutrition

When preparing food gets difficult, seniors turn to private chef service and other delivery services for healthy alternatives. Private chefs not only cook delicious meals but also ensure that your food is good with fresh and nutritious ingredients.

3. Food Quality

Since personal chef gets fresh ingredients and prepares meals in your home, you cannot question the quality of the food. You will not be unsure about how it was cleaned, cooked and served. Most of the personal chef comes with good experience in preparing at the hotels and restaurants, so they would surely know the best way to serve your fresh meal while they cook in your home.

The State of Arizona and its History with Immigration Reform

The Arizona immigration law goes into effect on July 29, 2010, when it will become a state crime to be in the country illegally. The new law gives law enforcement officials the authority to approach any person they feel may be an illegal alien. This same law was voted on in 2006 and denied.

The law relies on local law enforcement officials, as they will be the ones who have to enforce it. With a tight economy, and limited resources and staff, this new law will add more paperwork for the processing of people who are both legal and illegal.

Mexican descendants decrying SB 1070 in ArizonaArizona and Proposed Immigration Laws Result in Boycotting

Arizona’s proposed new immigration law has been controversial because of the fear the bill will harm legal citizens, and people are boycotting the state in protest. This is often the only avenue the common citizen has to the political issue they themselves cannot vote for, or if they voted against.

The same situation occurred in 1990 when Arizona was not going to acknowledge the Martin Luther King holiday. It ultimately cost the state 300 million dollars in lost revenue from conventions being canceled including the Super Bowl.

What Makes a Person an Illegal Alien According to Immigration Laws

Every single person in the US, besides Native Americans, is a result of immigration, whether directly moving here or later raising a family and then those members raising their own families. But there is a right way and a wrong way to become a citizen, and this is the issue at hand.

Arizona has estimated there are over 460,000 illegals in their state; no information is given on how they derived this number. However, the INS uses US census data to make many of their estimates.

People who come to the United States on a work visa that is not renewed are considered illegal aliens. However, they may have a driver’s license or state ID, and so this is also why the new law will inconvenience many people who do not walk around with their social security cards and birth certificates. Just a driver’s license is not proof of citizenship.

Mexicans make up about half of the immigration to the US every year, but there are also 14 other countries including China, Guatemala, Haiti, Canada, and Korea from which people illegally emigrate. These potential citizens live in cities all over the country, and immigrate here illegally as stowaways, people denied Green Cards, or from expired visas.

Arizona may wind up being successful in scaring away any illegals from crossing their borders. Perhaps they will cross boundaries in other states instead. Citizens of the state will have to prepare by carrying their papers with them wherever they go, so they are not unnecessarily detained. Arizona will have to spend thought and consideration on the details of the law, so it does not pose a problem for any visitor or citizen with a tan, darker skin, and dark hair.

Arizona and Racial Profiling for Immigration

The Arizona governor stated she believes the law “is constitutional” and “has protections against racial profiling,” though she did not mention what the protections are for legal citizens, which is the primary concern for those in opposition to the law.

In 1997 Chandler police arrest 340 people they believed to be illegal immigrants. Due to the fact, not all arrested were unlawful; they spent $500,000 in damages and years apologizing.

Phoenix police have arrested 63 people in the first few weeks of June 2010 for suspicion of being illegal when they could not produce their papers at the time. Out of this none were fully processed as actually being illegal.

Applying for US Immigration

There are a few ways by which a person might qualify to immigrate to the United States. The categories are very restricted, but their basis varies. For each different basis, Labor, Family, or Asylum, a different agency starts the application, and yet others may take it on if initially denied.

People getting their US citizenshipLabor-Based Applications

Employers may make applications to hire aliens. To begin these applications, the employer has to start with the Department of Labor. The Department of Labor’s job is to protect the labor market in the US to give priority to US citizens and lawful resident aliens. If it finds that there are able, willing, qualified US citizens or lawful permanent residents who qualify for the job, or that the employer is not offering the prevailing wage or is not offering the job on the same terms and conditions to US citizens and lawful residents, it will deny the application.

The place to start is the Department of Labor, armed with a full job description and proof that the alien applied for is qualified for the job. The Department of Labor will lead the employer through a process requiring the employer to advertise the job.

Family-Based Applications

US citizens and lawful permanent residents can petition for limited family members to become lawful permanent residents: their spouses, minor children and stepchildren, unmarried children of adult age, and in the case of US citizens, even married children, parents, or siblings.

If the family member lives in the United States and, in the case of relatives other than spouses, minor children and parents of US citizens, is in the U.S. legally at the time of application, that family member can apply for adjustment of status (to the lawful resident alien). Such an application starts with US Citizenship and Immigration Services. There is a national, central office that takes all applications initially. After initial processing, the USCIS itself transfers the application to the District Office having jurisdiction over the applicant’s place of residence.

If the beneficiary is outside the United States, the citizen or lawful resident has to start by filing a form called I-130 with the USCIS Service Center with jurisdiction over the U.S. citizen or resident alien’s place of residence. If the USCIS approves the I-130 petition, it transfers the case to a location called the National Visa Center, an arm of the Department of State. Ultimately, the National Visa Center transfers the case to the US consulate in the country where the beneficiary lives.

Port of Entry

An alien at an airport or other port of entry has to pass inspection with the US Customs and Border Patrol. That officer may deny entry even if the alien has a visa if the officer determines that the alien is not eligible for entry after all. There is no review of this decision. The only possible relief has a credible fear of persecution if returned to the country the alien set out from.

Executive Office for Immigration Review

The Executive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR) has ultimate jurisdiction over applications where the alien is in removal proceedings. This is the case where U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement has detained the alien and accused him of being in the U.S. unlawfully. The alien may defend this proceeding by applying for permanent residence, asylum, or any other type of relief from removal.

The alien can also end up in removal proceedings if US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) denies an application the alien had made, and it appears to the USCIS that that denial leaves the alien with no right to remain in the US The EOIR may then review the denied application and allow the alien to present evidence on it. EOIR may come to a different conclusion and grant the application, or it might affirm the USCIS determination and order the alien deported.

Bike Laws in New York

Whether you are a local or a visitor, it is crucial for you to know bike laws in New York City, so you are aware of your rights, and what you are allowed and disallowed to do. It is not that difficult to remember bike laws in this city because it is almost the same with universal bike laws.

New York Bike Law SignThere are general rules that you must follow when you are biking around New York. Basic rules include: 1) Wearing a helmet as you bike, 2) Children under the age of one cannot ride around the city even if they are wearing a helmet; 3) You must always stay on bike lanes; and, 4) You cannot cycle on expressways, highways, and other prohibited areas.

If you are living in the UK or in Australia where you are used to driving on the left-hand side of the road, it can be a challenging adjustment if you decide to try cycling around the US. The US is one of the many countries driving and cycling on the right-hand side of the road. So, if you’re used to driving on the left side, you must be on guard all the time to make sure you are on the correct side.

Here are some specific bike laws in New York that are good to know whether you are a local or a visitor:

1. RCNY 19-190 (Right of Way)

If you are staying in your correct lane and a vehicle uses your path, then you are entitled to receive not more than $100. If the car uses your road and causes contact on you, the biker, then you are entitled to receive not more than $250. You do not have to worry about this when in Central Park as they have designated official bike lanes.

2. VTL 1123 (Overtaking on the Right)

Overtaking on the right is prohibited, but it is allowed in some conditions. These exceptions include when you are in front of a vehicle, and you are going to make a left turn; and when you are in a one-way street, and there is sufficient space for the car to pass on your right.

You must follow bike laws especially when riding at night3. VTL 1214, RCNY 4-12-(c), and RCNY 4-11 (c)

All these laws pertain to “doorings,” which is one of the most dangerous road accidents that cause death or permanent injury to many bikers. Whenever you get hit by a car door as you are cycling towards the correct direction, then you are entitled to compensation, and there is no way for the vehicle owner to win the case. Vehicle owners, first off, should know that they must get out of the non-traffic side of the road and so, it is illegal for them or any of their passengers to get out along the highway. Secondly, vehicle owners must always be on the lookout before they leave their cars. They should always be aware of oncoming traffic. These laws do not only pertain to people getting off vehicles, but also to people getting on vehicles.

These are some of the most critical bike laws that you must remember if you are cycling around New York. It is good to know these even if you are just a hobby biker because you never know what you might expect on the road.

Adventure Wedding Ideas to Celebrate U.S. Citizenship

Your wedding is a once in a lifetime magical moment to get your green card for U.S. citizenship. Well, not unless you plan on doing it again with another person or you and your husband want to renew your vows. Nonetheless, for most people, a wedding only happens once. Thus, you have to give it your all to make it extra magical and remarkable. And the last thing you would wish your wedding to be is to make it boring and dull.

Couple at the immigration officeWhy not veer away from the usual wedding themes and go for something more adventurous and fun? Since you’re now a U.S. citizen, you can now travel around easier than just stay in the reception with Around Town Entertainment in New Jersey providing your guests with live music.

Show you and your groom’s crazy side through this fun and out-of-this-box wedding adventure ideas:

1. In a hot air balloon

Well, you don’t have to fly to North Carolina to do this (but would be better if you do so). As long as there is a place to do a hot air balloon ceremony, then you are good to go. Say ‘I Do’ while the balloon is flying up in the sky. It can just be you and your groom plus the officiating pastor or priest. The guests can wait for you on the ground (if in case you’ve decided to invite other people in).

2. At the viewing deck of one of the tallest hotels in the world

One of the best places to do it is at the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, UAE. This hotel is the third tallest hotel in the world standing at 1,053 feet. The wedding will take place at the hotel’s helipad which is 700 feet high. This is something not fit for the weak at heart, especially if you have a fear of heights. But hey! This looks wonderfully adventurous!

Iceland wedding with volcano backdrop3. Inside the crater of a volcano

Well, you have to choose the appropriate volcano for your wedding. And one that is perfect for wedding ceremonies is the Þríhnúkagigur Volcano in Iceland. Imagine riding the open elevator system going down the volcano which is 400 feet. Sounds fun, right? You can also enjoy a private dinner in the giant magma chamber.

4. With the Monks in Bhutan

Feel the serenity of the ceremony at the ancient temple in Bhutan while the monks are praying for you and giving you blessings for your marriage. You can even wear traditional Bhutanese costumes to make it more dramatic.

5. Inside an aquarium

Yes, you have read it right. You can opt to say ‘I do’ inside an aquarium in Paradise Island in the Bahamas. This goes if you and your groom are certified scuba divers. You can plunge down under Atlantis’ 2.7 million-gallon Ruins Lagoon where approximately 20,000 fishes and artifacts can celebrate with your union.

6. On top of the mountain

Mountain weddingThis goes especially if you and your groom are both mountaineers. Hike up the tallest mountain in your area and shout to the world your loving “I Do’s.” You can choose to do it before sunrise, so both of you can watch the sunrise together as husband and wife or before sunset as you both marvel at the majestic beauty of the setting sun together. You can also have your honeymoon on top of the mountain inside your love tent.

Anxious? Try This Anti-Anxiety Diet

Worried about your visa or citizenship status? Are you suffering from anxiety? Then perhaps you can try this anti-anxiety diet!

Yep, you’ve read it right. There is actually a diet designed for those suffering from anxiety.

Although anxiety is not caused by the food you eat, but your diet plays an essential role in how you feel, especially when you are feeling concerned if your citizenship status will be approved or being separated from your family.

To be able to fight or overcome anxiety, you need to eat healthier. It makes a difference to eat healthy since it can keep your anxious feeling in check. You can also try MBSF custom vitamins to assure you that all the necessary nutrient demands are fulfilled.

So how do you do that?

First off, veer away from eating fried food. As much as possible, totally remove this from your system since fried food are hard to digest, and they have small nutritional content. Likewise, it also contributes to heart problems. You can’t reduce your anxiety if your body is not processing well the food that you consume.

If you love drinking beers or different kinds of alcohol, better to put off that habit now if you are serious about overcoming your anxiety attacks. Alcohol is not good for the body, and it can dehydrate you, as well as throw off your hormone and nutritional balance.

Coffee lovers may not like this news, but too much coffee can really cause you to feel more anxious since coffee creates a fast heartbeat and other sensations that may cause panic attacks.

Even dairy products are a no-no since an excess of it can heighten the adrenaline levels and contribute to an anxious state more.

Avoid eating food that contains refined sugar as well since it can arouse or stimulate the body that can create a jitteriness that triggers anxiety symptoms. However, fruits in sugar are OK to eat.

You diet can relieve you from anxietyFood like yogurt, eggs, pickles, sour cream, wine, and liver are all acid-creating food. They may be delicious, but they can make the magnesium levels in the body go down. Since magnesium is the main contributor to anxiety. Although when you avoid eating this food can’t guarantee that your anxiety will be totally gone, but at least it can help reduce it. Just remember to eat food in moderation.

Likewise, if you want to reduce your anxiety levels, you opt for nutritious food like fresh fruits, vegetable, and water. Tryptophan-rich food like oats, soy, and poultry. You can also eat magnesium-rich food like black beans and tofu. Furthermore, go for food that has Omega-3 fatty acids such as fish, flax seed, and winter melons.

 

How Twitter Can Help Grow Your Business

Social media is essential to most businesses nowadays. Companies and enterprises do not just rely on broadcast or print advertising and press releases, but a significant portion of their marketing and promotion is dependent on social media sites. And one of these authoritative social networking sites is Twitter.

Twitter strategies for businessTwitter has been around for more than a decade now. It is considered one of the top websites in the world. The internet analytics company, Alexa, even ranked Twitter on the 8th spot which is a huge thing. It has an estimate of roughly 300 million active users per month, and 82% of them are browsing or logging in to Twitter through their mobile devices.

So how can Twitter help you with your business?

1. Marketing

You can post something about your product or services on Twitter and use a hashtag to promote your brand. Like what seoservicesnewyork.org is doing, it can be anything about your product. It can be a link to an informative article related to your name or a promotional tweet about your product and services. Just make sure you don’t forget about the hashtag because this is how your brand can be searched in Twitter or even in any search engine sites.

2. Lead generation

It is easy to find leads in Twitter since you only need to type the keywords and you will be shown a lot of tweets from different users about it. For instance, you are marketing a nail spa. You just type in nail spa, and you can be directed to hundreds or even thousands tweets about it. You can now engage these people and potentially find a customer through it.

Make your biz events viral3. Market research

Businesses can also use Twitter to do their market research. If you are trying to pitch a campaign for a particular client, just type in the keywords, and you can see a lot of tweet results about it. You can see what your target market’s opinions are about this particular product or service. You can even ask questions to them to further come up with a comprehensive market research.

4. Event marketing

Twitter has this unique advertising feature wherein it allows users to target a particular audience based on their needs. If you have an upcoming event and you want to create some noise about it to the people in the area, just go to Twitter and post some tweets about your event and put a hashtag. It is better to put a hashtag on location as well so those living or are near the area would know that there is going to be an event that will happen soon.

 

Tips for Reporting a Visa Violation

Immigration is a hot topic these days, which is understandable as more reports surface about visa violations in the workplace and elsewhere. Visa violations may involve actions by an immigrant, or by an employer. If an individual knows of a visa violation, they may be interested in finding out how to report that crime. As immigration agencies and laws are constantly changing, follow these steps to ensure that they know how to go about making such a report.

illegal immigrants crossing the US borderGather Pertinent Information

To report a visa violation to any agency, individuals will need certain information. Before calling anyone to make their report, gather the necessary information such as the name of the immigrant violating their visa, an employer of another person also involved in the violation, the home and work addresses required, business name, and a description of the alleged infringement.

Do Your Research

Before making a brash decision to report something that may or may not be a violation of immigration regulations, the individual should conduct some research. The Federation for American Immigration Reform provided a primer and suggested reading to get you up to speed on what today’s visa regulations involve, as does the USCIS – U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service.

Seek Advice

If the individual is unsure after researching visa regulations as to whether or not there is a visa violation, you can call the USCIS to consult an expert for free.

Contact the ICE

The Immigration & Customs Enforcement (ICE) at ice.gov enforces the United States’ immigration laws. To report a suspected visa violation, individuals should contact their local Department of Homeland Security (DHS) office and ask to speak with an ICE officer. Or, they can visit the ICE website to obtain their toll-free number.

Get in Touch with the IRS

If the suspected visa violation involves the workplace, this will include tax violations as well. Employers of illegal aliens or workers with expired visas are violating not only immigration law but the tax law as well. To report a visa violation that involves the workplace, contact an agent at the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).

Contact the FBI

Another easy way to report a visa violation is by contacting the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The FBI investigates all forms of criminal activity and can refer a violation to another agency if appropriate. With the use of the online tip submission form available on the FBI website, this is an effortless way to report a visa violation. FBI online TIPS form for criminal activity.